Category: ::education life::


Plot is an element of fiction that consists of the stages of action leading up to the climax of the story. A short story does not afford the writer much time to develop an elaborate plot. A short story plot is rather simple and can be analyzed by following a few steps.

Instructions!

1

List the events. A short story usually has one main character around whom all the action takes place. Your list of events for any short story will probably consist of the movements of the main character. Also make note of mental or emotional events that take place with respect to the main character, such as he learned how his mother died, he understood why his mother left him, and he stopped feeling sad.

2

Create a timeline. Take your list of events and put them in chronological order. Sometimes a short story begins with a flashback, in which case the events of the story are presented out of order. Arrange your list of events in chronological order, even if that isn’t the order in which they took place in the story.

3

Identify the conflict. Conflict is what compels the reader to continue reading, so all well-written short stories have a conflict. It may be as obvious as a struggle between two characters in the story, or it can be subtle, like the main character’s internal struggle to decide what is right. Identifying the conflict will help you understand the plot, since the plot is the main character’s journey toward resolving the conflict.

4

Find the climax. The climax of a short story happens when the tension heightens just before the conflict is resolved. In a mystery, for example, the climax is just before you find out who the killer is. The climax of a short story takes place shortly before the end of the story. After the climax, the writer ties up the loose ends and the story is over.

http://www.ehow.com/how_2063744_analyze-short-story-plot.html

~plot diagram~

It is a fun time for three-year-olds as they discover the world around them.

IN the third year, most children start to insist that they do things for themselves. Their limbs are stronger and they are able to control their movements better. They like meeting new people and doing new things. They may have a wider vocabulary and speak better.

They no longer seek attention from familiar adults. They are confident that the adults will be there when they need them. Children this age like to explore on their own without waiting for adults to guide them.

At this stage of their development, they need to take part in more activities that are related to their increasing need for independence. Parents and caregivers must plan activities that children can do themselves without adult assistance.

Outdoor activities such as digging with a spade and watering the plants are fun and easy to do. Simple construction play with wooden or plastic blocks can occupy a three-year-old’s attention.

They have a short attention span but they can take part in simple discussions, planning, sharing, taking turns and playing by the rules. They will wait for their turn and take their share of the toys during play.

They can now play with small groups of children. In a group of three or four children, three-year-olds can take turns to go under the bridge as they sing to the tune of, London Bridge Is Falling Down.

Puzzle play is a favourite among three-year-olds. Many start off with simple five- to six-piece puzzles, working towards more complex ones. It is interesting to note that children this age like to fit the pieces together though they may not complete the whole picture.

Some may give up working on the puzzle before completing it. When this happpens, you can help your child to complete it before keeping it in the box. Or you can tell your child that he can complete the puzzle on another occasion when he feels like working on it.

Parents and caregivers must learn how to encourage three-year-olds so that they can respond positively. Children at this age like to be noticed for what they can do. When they cannot manage a certain task, they get frustrated easily. Encourage them by saying, “I know you can do it.”

When children are upset over what they cannot do, show them that you understand their feelings. Let them know gently that if they should need help, you will be ready to assist them. This encourages them to be independent.

Mistakes are common with this age group. It is important that parents and caregivers know how to manage the situation and help children to know that they can learn from their mistakes.

Talk with them, rather than tell them what to do. You can show them how you handle things with care and attention. When you show them how to do something, be sure to make it appealing to the child.

Children this age imitate adults in what they do. They like doing things around the house like wiping, cleaning, mopping and vacuuming. Whenever there is a task to be done around the house, offer your young child a manageable activity. Being able to help will boost the child’s self-esteem.

Three-year-olds like working with their hands. Playing with dough or clay appeals to them. Usually they will make or draw things first before deciding what it is they are doing. This is part of their development. It is not until they enter the fourth year that they start to talk about what they are about to do before doing it.

As with all activities, adults must show children how to put things back where they belong or carry things from end to another. When your child wants to do something, she will know where to get it and put it back when she is done.

Children may still be a little unsteady with their hands but they now know how to be careful.

Whenever possible, set up a place where your three-year-old can play or do her work. There should be low shelves, and low tables and chairs for your child.

Making music with household objects such as ladles, biscuit tins, pots and pans can provide endless fun for children. They may make up their own songs to sing along to the music they create. To build their interest, parents and caregivers should participate in this merry-making.

Allow three-year-olds ample time to learn and discover, to help maximise their potential. Children often repeat what they like to do. If you observe that your child is always doing the same thing, don’t stop him. Let him graduate to the next activity on his own.

http://thestar.com.my/columnists/story.asp?file=/2010/2/10/columnists/childwise/5636947&sec=Childwise

Myth or Fact?

“If you didn’t learn a foreign language as a child, you will never be fully proficient in its grammar”

This is a more general version of the “foreign accent” myth described in the previous article in the series. It has its roots in the Critical Period Hypothesis proposed by Eric Lenneberg in 1967.

Lenneberg suggested that one’s first language must be acquired before puberty (about 12 years of age). After puberty, he claimed, neurological changes in the brain make it impossible to fully learn a language. To support his hypothesis, Lenneberg pointed to examples of children who were kept in isolation from others and had no contact with their first language until after puberty. Such children kept making basic grammar mistakes, no matter how long they tried to learn the language.

The Critical Period Hypothesis has been generalized to refer to second/foreign language acquisition, leading to statements such as: “If you don’t acquire a second/foreign language before puberty, you will always have problems with some parts of grammar” This causes language learners to interpret their flaws as a neurological necessity and discourages them from trying to improve.

Fact:
Grammar proficiency has more to do with how much input you get than how early you begin learning.

Take my example: I was born in Poland and started attending English classes at 6. Despite my young age (which, in theory, should have allowed me to learn very quickly), I didn’t manage to acquire the language. After 9 years of attending classes my knowledge of grammar was extremely limited and I would always make tons of grammar mistakes. Finally, at 15, I started taking English seriously — reading books, using SuperMemo, using dictionaries, etc.

According to many linguists, I was already past my critical period, but guess what — I started making fantastic progress. I was learning faster than I had ever learned as a child. In 2-3 years, I managed to master native-like grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary.

Today, my English is nearly as good as a native speaker’s. My writing is natural and basically flawless. After a few days of speaking practice, my accent becomes indistinguishable from that of an American native speaker. When I went to California this spring, I met some people who couldn’t believe I hadn’t been born in America until I showed them my Polish passport.

I occasionally make mistakes (I’m almost always aware of them), but it doesn’t bother me, because I have reasons to believe they would quickly disappear if I spoke English on an everyday basis.

I am 25 years old and I’m sure I could master another European language just like I mastered English. (I’m not sure about Chinese and other non-European languages.) Based on my experience, I certainly don’t think I would be “too old” to absorb any part of French or German grammar.

Directly taken from:http://www.antimoon.com/other/myths-child.htm